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Summary

     The history of Uruk type artifacts from Periods VI and V at Godin tepe, an ancient site located near the modern city of Kangavar in central western Iran, is long, varied, and location specific. The site has substantial evidence for continuous occupation from as early as the mid-fifth millennium BC (Young 1986:212). Godin Tepe was probably an important site in the Kangavar valley at the time of the Uruk expansion during the fourth millennium BC due to both its size and location. At 14-15 hectares, it was the largest site in this area during this time period, and was strategically located along a major east-west trade route: the High Road, or Silk Road, that eventually linked the Mediterranean and China. In the latter half of the fourth millennium, evidence for contact with Uruk sites to the south is provided by the occurrence of Uruk type artifacts alongside the Godin Tepe local assemblage.

     Evidence indicates that Godin Tepe in the preceding (pre-contact) Period VII through early Period VI was a simple rural agricultural village yielding no finds indicative of any degree of social complexity, centralized government, or bureaucracy in the limited areas excavated. Uruk type pottery and small finds first occur (although infrequently) at Godin Tepe in the following middle and late Period VI. The presence of Uruk administrative-linked artifact types of a token and beveled rim bowls, and parallels with the pottery of Middle Uruk Nippur and Tepe Farukhabad in middle and late Period VI could indicate a relationship was already established in the Middle Uruk period as part of the first Uruk expansions. The association with the Uruk culture to the south continued and intensified in the earlier part of Period V, as evidenced by finds from test trenches Operation B, and Operations A and XYZ at the northern edge of the mound…

    Analysis of the pottery and architecture of the local and foreign Uruk material cultures suggests a significant degree of interaction between the villagers and foreigners.

Excerpt from "A Chronology of Uruk Artifacts From Godin Tepe in Central Western Iran and Implications for the Interrelationships Between the Local and Foreign Cultures" by Virginia R. Badler